IN THE EXPOSITION OF PERSONAL FOLLOWING (TAQLEED SHAKHSI)
In Mishkat, Kitabul Amarah it is reported with reference of Muslim the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) has said:
من اتاکم و امرکم جمیع علی رجل واحد یرید ان یشق عصاکم و یفرق جماعتکم فاقتلوہ
(When a person comes to you, knowing that you are united on the obedience of some one, he desires to break your rod or crutch (symbol of defensive weapon) as also the unity (in your rank) and to shatter in pieces, then kill him.)
In this Hadis the reference is to Imam and Ulama -e- Deen round whom the people remain united in matters of Faith and obedience. It does not refer to the king or the ruler whose obedience in anti-religious matters is not permissible.
Muslim has also devoted a chapter relating to the obedience of the Amir (ruler, person of authority) in matters of other than sin or crime, showing thereby that the obedience of a single person is essential.
In the Mishkat, Kitabul Buyu (Transaction) on the authority of Bukhari, it is reported by Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari about Hazrat Ibne Masood لاتسئلوا فی مادام ھذا الحبر فیکمthat so long as this learned person remains with you, do not ask me ask anything relating to religious problems with you. This shows that in the presence of the most reverenced person the obedience of the person lower in rank to him is not desirable, for the obvious reason that in the eyes of a person his Imam is most respectable It is said in ‘Fat hul Qadeer’
من تولی امر المسلمین شیئا فاستعمل علیھم رجلا و یعلم ان فیھم من ھو اولی بذالک و اعلم منہ بکتاب اللہ وسنہ رسولہ فقد خان اللہ و رسولہ و جماعہ المسلمین
(One who is the ruler of a Muslim kingdom and appoints a person to govern the people of that part knowing that there is a person better qualified and deserving for the status offered to the man of lesser standing, then the ruler commits dishonesty with Allah, His Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Musalmans in general.
In the Mishkat, Kitabul Amarah it is said:
من مات و لیس فی عنقہ بیعہ مات میتہ جاھلیہ
(One who dies without the belt of obedience (Ita’at) on his neck. he dies as one ignorant brute.)
There is a call for Bai’at (fealty) to Imam, which is synonymous to Taqleed and fealty (Bai’at to Auliya all are included; the question is under which sultan’s fealty are the wahabis? These are a few verses and the Ahadis on the subject; more could be presented, but brevity is taken as necessity. The Ummat, by and large is consistent in the matter of taqleed since the days of the followers of the companions (tab’a Tabi’een)on the constant practice that one who is not a mujtahid should follow a mujtahid and to follow the of consensus (Ijma) of Ummat is proved by the Qur’an and the Hadis. In the Qur’an it is said:
ومن یشاقق الرسول من بعد ماتبین لہ الھدی و یتبع غیر سبیل المومنین نولہ ماتولی و نصلہ جھنم و سائت مصیرا
(Para 5, Surah Nisa 4, Verses 115)
If anyone contends with the Apostle even after guidance has come to him, we shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in hell-what an evil refuge!
This shows that one should follow the path which the Musalmans are following, as an obligation. as there is consensus of the Musalmans on the taqleed.
Mishkat, Babul I’tesaam, bil Kitab wal Sunnah (Holding fast on the the book wal Sunnah says
اتبعوا السواد الاعظم فانہ من شذ شذ فی النار
(Follow the larger group because one who keeps hmself aloof from the group of the Musalmans he will be sent to the Hell.
It is also said in the Hadis ماراہ المومنون حسنا فھو عند اللہ حسن that what is good considered by the mulsims is also good in the presence of Almighty Allah.
It would appear as a matter observation that the Musalmans by and large have been following the principle of Taqleed shakhsi (following the personality) down the ages. Even now a days Musalmans in the Arab and Ajam (Aabia and beyond) have been acting on the personal following and are Muqallids by way of Taqleed -e- Shkhsi. Any one who is Ghair Muqallid he rejects Ijma (and as such becomes an outcast from the Muslim fold. The matter is clear; if you are against Ijma how would justify the establishment of the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakar and Hazrat Umar (May Allah be pleased with them). It is only through the consensus (Ijma) of the Ummat that the khilafat -e- Siddiqi and Faruqi can be justified.
It is said in the Tafsi -e- Khazin وکونوامع الصادقین that Hazrat Aby Bakar advised the Ansars not to think of establishing a separate Khilafat of their own, rather join hands with the common righteous Musalmans, the groups of Muhajireen whom the Qur’an proclaims as Sadiqeen.
It is LOGICAL ARGUMENTS that common observation that no one in the world can accomplish any thing of note without the co operation of other fellow-beings, and without following some one else. In all technical and educational fields the co operation and guidance of experts and sepcialists is of paramount significance. This is so in the worldly affairs; the religious affairs are not difficult and unsurmountable. In this field the following (taqleed) of experts and especialists is equally essential. Thisacceptance of opinions is also seen in the matter of Haids. If some Hadis is declared weak (Zaeef) by the Scholars, it is admitted as such by others. Like wise in respect of the recitation of the Qur’anic verses, the modes of Qir’at have been prescribed by experts which are followed by the keen learners of the Qir’at. In every field there is always the most perfect man whose words constitute the final words and his personal guidance is sought accepting him as such and it is only acceptance of this nature that the other aspirants receive guidance. The position may be stated that in every field there must be the most qualified persons whose following brings forth the desired results. There is only one imam and in the country there is one ruler whose personal follwoing (Taqleed -e- Shakhsi) is binding on all the rest.
In the Mishkat in the Chapter Etiquettes of the trvel or journey it is said:
اذا کان ثلثہ فی سفر فلیو مروا احدھم
(If three men are traveling together, two of them should make the third as their Imam (leader)
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