(Following some one else)
In connection with Taqleed five points ought to be kept in mind; (1) The meaning and kinds of Taqleed (which Taqleed should be adopted and which should be rejected, (On whom Taqleed is binding and on whom it not binding or necessary (4) Arguments in support of Taqlled and (5) objections against Taqleed and answers there to etc. These points or aspects of Taqleed have been accordingly dealt with in five sections / chapters
MEANING OF TAQLEED AND ITS KINDS
There are two meanings of the word Taqleed, one is literal and the other is “sharaee” or religious. The dictionary or literal meaning is to put the belt or garland round the neck while the religious meaning denotes making one self bound to follow some ones postulates from religious point of view thinking it to be obligatory in a particular sense or regard it is based on religious premises.
In such cases, the point in consideration of the follower is the personality whose words or deeds are taken as binding without due regard as to whether or not there is any shar’ee or religious justification.
In the marginal note relating to the following of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) on page 86 in the book ‘Sharh Makhsirul Manar’ it is said:
التقلید اتباع الرجل غیرہ فیما سمعہ یقول او فی فعلہ علی زعم انہ محق بلا نظر فی الدلیل
(Taqleed means to obey some other person. in matters which he sees the other person doing or saying or hears from others about that, believing that the thing said or done by him is correct, without any enquliry. In this behalf! Also, Imam Ghizali says in his ‘Kitabul Mustsfa التقلید ھو قبول قول بلا حجۃ that Taqleed is that deed attributed to some one else, which he does without any reason or argument (page 387). According to this definition, obeying the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) is not taqleed,because all his deeds and sayings (commands) by themselves constitute the argument and justification from Sharait (religious) point of view. Taqleed means to follow without looking into religious sanction. Viewed from this angle, we the musalmans are the Ummati of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) and to obey him can not be said a Taqleed. Similarly, the reverenced Companions and the Imams of the Deen are also the Ummati of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) and not the Muqallids. Like wise the obedience of the Ulama which the common Musalman do cannot be called Taqleed, because no Musalman regards the sayings and the deeds of the Ulama as an argument or words of authority for himself; he follows the Aalim (learned man) because he takes the latter as the Molvi Sahib and he must have consulted some authentic book for what he says and does; even if at a later statge it comes to knowledge that what the Molvi Sahib has said or done was not correct, it will not matter to much him (his obedience will not suffer!)
As already stated above, Taqleed is of two kinds namely,(1) according to Shariat and (2) not conforming to Shariat. Taqleed -e- Shara ee means following ome one in respects of the commands of the Shariat, such as Namaz, Fasting,. Hajj Zakat etc where the sayings of the Imams of been are accepted as true and are followed without any mental reservation. On the other hand, in matters non-shariat dictates or postulates of any one known as authority or specilist are accepted worth following in the particular field of profession or art. Following the experts or specialist is known as Dunyavi taqleed which has nothing to do with the Shariat or religion.
Mystioc saints who follow their Murshids (Masha’ikh) and engage themselve in oral recitations and practical rituals do so by way or Taqleed in deen but not the taqleed of Shariat. Rather it is the Taqleed in Tariqat or spiritual practices, because it is not the taqleed in respect of p roblems of halal and haram which are purely the Shariat issues. Taqleed of non- shariat nature if it is against the explicit Shraiat matters, then it is haram, otherwise it is permissible and if it is not aganist Islam, then also it is permissible. This broad principle can be applied to the customs and practices on special occasions of marriage, death etc or other celebrations and their permissibility or otherwise can be decided. The holy Quran has sternly warned against the Taqleed or following in matters which are expressly haram and has prescribed severe punisment to the defaulters in this connection.
ولا تطع من اغفلنا قلبہ عن ذکرنا واتبع ھواہ وکان امرہ فرطا
(Para 15, Surah Kaaf, Verses 28)
(And follow not the man whose heart We have turned negligent and inattentive from Our Remembrance, who follows his onw selfish desires and he has exceeded the limits in this behalf.
وان جاھدک علی ان تشرک بی مالیس لک بہ علم فلا تطعھما
(Para 21, Surah Luqman, Verses 15)
(2) And if they strive to induce you to assoeiate Me the one of whom you have no knowledge, then do not obey him.
واذا قیل لھم تعالوا الی ما انزل اللہ والی الرسول قالوا حسبنا ما وجدنا علیہ ابائنا اولو کان ابائوھم لایعلمون شیئا ولا یھتدون
(Para 7, Surah Maeda 5, Verses 104)
(3) And when they are asked towards that which Allah has revealed and the (holy) prophet. they say that it is enough for them what has come to them from their ancestors, even if their fore-fathers were devoid of knowledge and on the path of misguidance.
واذا قیل لھم اتبعوا ما انزل اللہ قالوا بل نتبع ما الفینا علیہ ابائنا
(Para 2, Surah Bakra, Verses 107, 70)
(4) And if they are told to come to that revealed by Almighty Allah, they reply that they will follow what found their fore-father.”
In these verses and like ones there is outright condemnation of the taqleed which were ascribed to the fore-fathers of the unbelevers. The practices of those ancestors were manifestlly opposed to the tenets of the Shariat and were thus haram. As far as the taqleed of Shariat and the obedience to reverened Imams, these verses do not refer to them; great care should therefore be taken to avoid any misunderstanding in this respect.
PROBLEMS OF TAQLEED AND NON – TAQLEED
There are some details of the Taqleed in Shariat. Shariat Problems are of three kinds (1) Aqaid (plural of Aqeedah, the fundamental traits of Faith (Eiman); (2) those commands which are distinctly proven by the Holy Qur’an and the Ahadees; there is no concern of Ijtihad in these ordinations and (3) those ordinations or commands which have been deduced from the holy Qur’an and the Ahadees alongwith those discovered through Ijtihad or interpretation and re-interpretation of Islamic Law. Taqleed in Aqeedah is not impermissible.
In Tafsir Ruhul Bayan interpretation of Aayet of Surah “Hood” نصیبھم غیر منقوضIf some one were to ask us as to how we come to believe in the Tauhid and Risalat (One-ness of Allah and the Prophet hood, then it would not be said on the authority on the authority of Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifah or the Fiq’he Akbar, but through the arguments and reserach (as opposed to Taqleed) because Taqleed in Aqeeda (Fundamentals of Eiman) is not valid and lawful. It is said in the Introduction of Shami in respect of Taqleed:
(عن معتقدنا (ای عما نعتقدہ من غیر المسائل الفرعیہ مما یجب اعتقادہ علی کل مکلف بلا تقلید لاحد وھو ما علیہ اھل السنہ والجماعہ و ھم الاشاعرۃ والماتریدیہ
(It neans that the problems we base our fundamental traits of Eiman (aqaid) are the same which are followed by the Ahle Sunnat and the Ahle Sunnat are the Ashairah and Matridiyah.
The issues of faith which are distinetly extraneous are known as non-fundamental ones but their adoption or taqleed is obligatory on the person concerned, provided they do not clash with the fundamentals of the Eiman which are the halmark of the members of the ahle Sunnau wal Jama’at. Fundamentals of Eiman stand by themselves uncontaminated by other non fundamental ones which are secondary in nature; however their adoption is permissible on the condition stated above that they do not clash with the basics of the religion. In clear and explicit commands which are the fundamentals of the religion no taqleed is justified. Five obligatory prayers, the fixed number rekats in each Namaz (prayer), thirty day’s fasting without eating and drinking during fasting, these are the issues which are proven without a semblance of ambiguity and no one can say that he is following and obeying these commands because Imam Abu Hnifah has said so or it is so declared in the Fiqah Akbar. Rather their authenticity shall be derived dely on the holy Qur’an and the Ahadees of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him).
Those problems (masail) which are deduceed from the Qur’an, hadis and Consensus (Ijmaa) of the Ummah or through personal efforts (ijtihad) or derived from these sources are also binding on those who have taken no part in Ijtihad.
We have explained in some details the problems in which taqleed is permissible and which problems should be avoided in respect of Taqleed. At times the Ghair Muqallid (persons of free-lance beliefs!) raise objections against Muqallids that they have no authority to extract issues and their solution through the Quran and the hadis. The answer to this frivolous questioning is that there is no need to extract authority in regard to fundamentals of religion because the holy Qur’an and the Ahadis are self-contained in these respects. As such their objection is itself misplaced and should not have beeen raised at all. However if the issue was whether Yazid was guilty of Kufr by having transgressed the fundamentals of Islam, the issue may be taken as debatable, for the simple reason that it is based on personal estimation and not a matter to be judged through a reference to Qur’an and Sunnah. The learned Jurists (Fuqaha) of Islam refer to the Qur’an and Hadis to confirm the authenticity of a new trend in this respect and not to confirm the very fundamentals in question, which stand confirmed as irrevocable and need no further probing.
ON WHOM TAQLEED IS BIDING (OBLIGATORY) ?
Practising or practically engaged under the Laws of the Shariat (known as ‘Mukallaf) are of two kinds; one those enaged in search of new problems or Mujahids and the other, Non Mujahids or common Musalmans. A Mujahid is the person who is learned or educated enough who understands the salient and latent features of the Qur’an and the Sunnah and is capable of deducing new problems together with their solutions; in particular he should have full knowledge of the Nasikh and the Mansukh, or in other words. the verses of the Qur’an in their original context and the changes (replacements) by other verses under the Divine command and the circumstances for such changes. It is essential as on its depends the capability of the scholar for the correct application of his findings. Intelligence and mannerisms of presenting of his view points must be inducing for their acceptance. Only such a person is worth being recognised as Mujtahid. All the rest Musalmaans are Ghair (Non) – Mujtahid or Muqallid. Taqleed for the Ghair Mujtahid is essential, but for the Mujtahid taqleed is not binding. There are six grades or ranks of the Mujtahids (1) Mujtahid Fish Shar’a (in shariat), (2) Mujtahid fil Mazh (in Religion), (3) Mujtahid fil Masail (Problems), (4) Ashabul Takhrij (Having knowledge of discovering or deducing problems), (5) Ashabul Tarjih (having knowledge of priorities and (6) Ashabul Tamiz (having knowledge of differentiation) (Ref, Muqdamah Shami, point of view Tabaqt ul Fuqaha – Ranks of jurists).
(1) MUJTAHID FIL SHAR’A (SHARIAT) : Those learned scholars who introduced the laws of Ijtihad, for example, the Four Imams, Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Shafaee, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad bin Hambal.
(2) MUJTAHID FIL MAZHAB : Those learned scholars who follow (taqleed) the principles introduced by the Four Imams and extract or deduce supplementary principles in the religion for the convenience of their rollowers; for example, Imam Abu Yusuf, Muhammad Ibne Mubarak, who are the followers of Imam Hanifa in respects of Principles and are themselves the Deducers’ or innovators of the problems (as distinct from the Principles.
(3) MUJTAHID FIL MASA’IL : are those persons who are Muqallids of the principles and problems, but in such matters where the explanations of the Imams are not available and these person are capable to produce arguments in support of their viewpoints after consulting the Qur’an and the Hadis, for example Imam Tahavi and Qazi Khan, Shamsul Aimma Sarkahi etc.
(4) ASHABUL TAKHRIJ : are those persons who cannot do Ijtihad on their own; however they can explain and elaborate certain statements of the Imam, for example, Imam Karkhi.
(5) ASHABUL TARJIH : are those persons who can choose and give priority to some traditions (Riwayat) over others, for example if there are more than one statements of the Imam concerning the same matter, they can assign prioity to any of them with reason and arguments in support of their choice. Similarly they can choose, as a matter of priority between the statement of the Imam and his followers as also in respect of other immas, for example, the author of Quduri and the author of Hidayah etc.
(6) ASHABUL TAMIZ : are whose persons who distinguish and differentiate between the explicit religion and other extra ordinary traditions,; similarly in statements with strong arguments and reasons behind them and those which are weak in these resects, as also between those statements which are condemnable and those which are worth following, for example, the author of ‘Kanz’ and the author of Dur e Mukhtar.
As for those who do not belong to any of the six categories, they are the muqllids, pure and simple! like common brands of ulama (scholars) who can refer or explain certain problems only after consulting the relevant books!
We have already said that it is ‘haram’ for a mujtahid to do taqleed of any other person. As for the distinguished persons of the above mentioned six categories of the Mujtahids. they shall be considered mujtahid of their own category and the muqallids in respect of others, for example, Imam Abu Yusuf and Muhammad are the Muqallids of Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifa in respect of the Principles (Usul) and Qawa’id (Rules & regulations, and since in matters of masail (problems are themselves mujtahids, they cannot be muqallids.
With this elaborations of ours, the objections of the ‘ghair muqallids get answered who often say that when Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad are themselves the hanafis, then they are at times raising objections against Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifa. In this connection it can be said that in respect of Usul (Fundamental Principles) and (Qawa’id (rules and Regulations) they are the muqallids and as such they do not differ with the great Imam. While in respect of subsidiary and extraneous problems, they are the mujtahids and can express their independent opinions in which they are not the muqallid. The above exposition also answers the objection that at times the Hanafis adopt the verdicts of their other Imams in some matter and give fatwa by passing the statement of Hazrat Imam Abu Yusuf. In view of their behaviour why should they call themselves as Hanafis, the answer is that somes jurists (Fuqaha) are also the Ashabul Tarjih and it is their prerogative to give preference in certain problems and its acceptance cannot be taken as disobedience to the Imam. In the circumstances the followers of Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifa remain Hanafis insted of belonging to any other sub-division in matters of taqleed.
The statements of Imam Abu Yusuf and Muhammad bin Mubarak are based on the fundamental enunciations of Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifa and can therefore be said to belong to him in the man since in the final analysis they are based and dervied from the Qu’ran and the Sunnah. The great Imam has said that any thing belonging to and defived from the two sources of Islam, namely the Qur’an and the Ahadis, is part of his religion (matter of Belief or Eiman). Therefore to accept any statement from Imam Abu Yusuf or Imam Muhammad bin Mubarak is as good as taking from Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifah hmiself, just in the same way that to act any Hadis is like acting upon the Qur’an itself.
Some Ghair muqallids say that they possess the capability (knowledge) of doing Ijtihad and as such they do not follow (taqlid) of any one else. This is not more than wishful thinking. The fact is that such tall talkers do not know and cannot dream what great knowledge is essential to be mujtahid in the real sense. Hazrat Imam Razi, Imam Ghizali, Imam Tirmizi. Imam Abu Daud, Hazrat Ghaus Pak, Hazrat Bayazid Bustami, Shah Bahaul Haq Naqshbandi have been scholars of learning of such great calibre and prominance that they are rightly regarded as the pillars of Islam; yet none of them and their likes ever claimed to be the Mujtahids; they remained Muqallids and they preferred to call themselves as Hanafi, Shafa’ee, Maliki or Hambali In their view to be a mujtahid needed the quantum of knowledge and spiritual insight before which their own knowledge from their point of view fell short of the eminence that the station of ijtihad demanded. As against them, now a days it has become a soat of fashion in certain quarters that they do not feel any shame or reluctance in branding themselves as mujtahids (!) while the fact is that they cannot even pronounce the names of the book of Ahadis correctly!!
ARGUMENTS IN SUPPORT OF TAQLEED
This Chapter is divided in two Section;. In the first section
THE ABSOLUTE (MUTLAQ) TAQLEED and in the second Section The TAQLEED SHAKHSI OR PERSONAL have been described with arguments in their suport.
TAQLEED : being Wajib (obligatory) is established through the verses of the Holy Qur’an, confirmed and genuine Ahadis, the practices of the Ummah and the statements of the Commentators (Mufassireen) Qur’an.
اھدنا الصراط المستقیم صراط الذین انعمت علیھم (Para 1, Surah Fatiha, Verses 5)
(1) (Guide us on the Right Path, the Path of those on whom you have showered blessing.
The verse may be taken as the argument in favour of Absolute (Mutlaq) Taqleed as well as the Taqleed of Mujtahids. This shows that the right path is that on which the righteous persons have moved along in their life journey. The holy lands of Mufassirin (Commentators) of Qar’an, Muhaddiseen (Scholars of the Ahadis), Jurists. Saints Auliya Allah, Ghaus & Qutub, and Abdal are the righteous servants of Allah; they were all Muqallids, proving there by that Taqleed is the Right Path. No Mufassir, Muhaddis and Wali has ever been Ghair Muqallid. ghair Muqalid is one who is not a Mujtahid and abstains from being a Muqallid because for a Mujtahid to do Taqleed is forbidden.
لایکلف اللہ نفسا الا وسعھا (Para 3, Surah Bakra 2, Verses 286)
(2) (Allah does not put burden on a person which he cannot bear
This verse shows that Allah does not cause hardships to a man which he cannot endure. It means that the man who is incapable of Ijtihad, is unable to extract problems (masail) from the Qur’an as it amounts to over-burdening him if he is restrained from Taqleed and to expect him to derive problems from the Qur’an is not justifiable. When a poor man is exempted from Zakat and Hajj on account of his poverty, then how can an illiterate or sem-Iterate be burdened with the scholarly task of deducing and searching new things from the Holy Qur’an.
والسابقون الاولون من المھاجرین والانصار والذین اتبعوھم باحسان رضی اللہ عنھم و رضوا عنہ (Para 11, Surah Toba 9, Verses 100)
(3) (And the First and foremost among the Muhajireen and Ansar and those who followed them with good intentions these are those with whom Allah was pleased and they were pleased with Allah.
It means that Allah is pleased with those who followed the foctstepe of the Muhajirs and the Ansar. This is nothing but Taqleed.
اطیعوا اللہ و اطیعوا الرسول و اولی الامر منکم (Para 5, Surah Nisa 4, Verses 59)
(4) (Obey Allah the Almighty and obey the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) and those who wield authority in the land
In thise verse there is the command to obey three distinct personnel namely Allah Qur’an) the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him (hadis), the person holding authority to command the Ulama versed in Fiqah (Jurisprudence) Istimbat (Knowledge of deriving problem from the Quran and Hadis. In this verse it will be noticed that the word ATI ‘OO (and follow) has been used twice; once for Allah the Almighty aqlone and then combinedly for the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Ulil Am’r (ruling athority. The reason is clear; in respect of Allah, the obedience is only in the Commands which He has revealed and not what he does as well as NOT when He does engage Himself in any activity and his Silence. He bestows sustenance (food) to the non-believers in spite of their unbelef, but He does not punish them and there for their kufr or rejection of faith, yet be punishes them as and when He likes. But we cannot follow the Divine activity like this. Some times He grants (superficial)victory to kafirs when He intends doing so. On the other hand we are bound to obey the commands off the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Imam Mujtahid in whatever they do or donot do i.e. keep silence. It was for this difference between two sets of personages that the word ‘Ati’oo’ has been used twice in this verse. if some one says that by the words Olil Am’r is meant the ruler of the Islamic state, even in this respect obedience to his commands shall be restricted only to the laws of the Shariat and not necessarily the mundane or non – Shariat laws. For the Islamic state it is obligatory that the ruler or the person in authrity shall seek guidance and enunciation from the Ulama-e-Mujtahideen. The real commands emanate from the authority of the Faqih and the State only acts as their promulgating and issuing agency as the ulama and the Faqih do not possess such an authority nor vested as such by any branch of the government. It amounts to saying that the king is the ruler of his subjects while the Ulama-Mujtahidin are the ‘ruler’ i.e, supervening authority over the titular head of the state. It also means that in the effective sense the words olil Am’r’ stand for the Ulama and the mujtahidin rolled into one personality. The net point derived in this case is that is at work in our affairs that it is Taqleed after all. either of the ruler or the Ulama-e- Mujatahideen.
It must be clearly bournce in mind that in the verse the word ‘Ati’oo stands exlusively for the obedience o the commands/ rules of the Shariat and not the mundane ones.
The above verse also indicates that the commands or laws are of three kinds; Those explicitly mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, for example the command relating to the period of Iddat of four months and ten days for a woman whose husband dies. This is the command of Allah (Ati’ullah); those commands which are based on the hadis, for example the wearing of gold and silver ornaments being Haram for men folk.
Third, those which are not clearly defined in the Qur’an or the hadis, for example, the dealing of ‘sud’ in any transaction relating to profit and loss. In this respect the reference shall be made to the Ulama Mujtahid who are the final arbiters in such matters.
فاسئلوا اھل الذکر ان کنتم لاتعلمون(Para 14, Surah Nahal 16, Verses 43)
(5) (As (enquire) from the persons of learning if you do not know)
The verse points to seeking advice and knowledge from the persons of learning if the common men do not know the real meaning or nature of any command. The men of learning explicitly refer to the mujtahids. It is also said that this verse is in respect of historical incidents which require exact knowledge. This is correct only to the extent of making enquiry but it cannot be confined to only the historical incidents / facts
واتبع سبیل من اناب الی (Para 21, Surah Luqman 31, Verses 15)
(6) (And follow the man who leads (people) unto Me)
The verse indicates that the following (taqleed) should be done of those persons who have devoted themselves to Almighty Allah. Here there is no restriction on the nature of matters in which guidance is needed.
والذین یقولون ربنا ھب لنا من ازواجنا و ذریتنا قرۃ اعین واجعلنا للمتقین اماما (Para 19, Surah Alfurqan 25, Verses 74)
(7) And those who say: O our Lord! provide us the coolness of our eyes from our wives and children and make us the leader of the right ous people).
As an explanation off this verse it is stated in the “Ma’aa limul Tanzil’ that فنقتدی بالمتقین و یقتدی بنا المتقونwe my follow ther righteous people and the latter follow us.
The verse also demands that the taqleed/ following the men of Allah (Ahllah) is on obligation.
فلو لانفر من کل فرقۃ طائفۃ لینفقھوا فی الدین و لینذر و اقومھم اذا رجعوا الیھم لعلھم یحذرون (Para 11, Surah Tauba 9, Verses 122)
(8) (And why was it not that from each group of theirs a band should have come out to receive the knowledge of the Deen and on return, to warn the people so that they may adopt righteousness)
This verse shows that it is not necessary that every man should be a mujtahid (or try to be one!)
ولو ردوہ الی الرسول و الی اولی الامر منھم لعمہ الذین یستنبطونہ منھم
(Para 5, Surah Nisa 4, Verses 83)
(9) “And if the people had refered (their matters) to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and those ‘men of command’ (Olil Am’r), then they would have come to know the men who are versed in extracting knowledge (istimbaat)
This verse clearly shows that in matters of Qur’anic context, Ahadis and general affais (Akhbar) it is essential that at first these should be refered to the scholars who are learned enough to extract the real significance of the said matter. and after having their verdict, they ought to have acted accordingly. The Quran and the hadis are superior to Khabar (general affairs); hence the necessity of approach to the mujtahid in the first instance.
یوم ندعوا کل اناس بامامھم
(10) (The Day when We shall call the people alongwith their leaders (imam)This verse has been explained in the Tafsir ‘Ruhul Ma’aani) thus:
او مقدم فی الدین فیقال یا حنفی یا شافعی
(by the word Imam is meant the leader in relegious matters, and accordingly it shall be announced on the Day of Judgement, O Hanafi , O Shafee
This shows that on the day of judgment, each individual shall be called (for acountability) in the company of his leader (imam). The question is that if a man had not taken any imam in the world, with whom shall he be called on the Fateful day? The mystic (‘Sufiya) are of view that shaitan will be the imam of the people without imam!
واذا قیل لھم امنوا کما امن الناس قالوا انومن کما امن السفھاء
(Para 1, Surah Albakra 2, Verses 13)
(11) (And when it is said to them : Adopt Faith (Eiman) like the people of genuine (real) Faith, they say : shall we believe as the fools have believed!
It means that only that Eiman in acceptable which is followed by men of righteousness and that, it essence, is Taqleed.
SAYINGS OF COMMENTATORS OF QUR’AN AND
SCHOLARS OF AHADEES (MUFASSIRIN
It is reported in Darmi, Chapter (Iqtidaro Bil Ulama)
اخبرنا یعلی قال اخبرنا عبد الملک عن عطاء و اطیعو اللہ و اطیعوا الرسول و اولی الامر منکم قالوا اولو العلم والفقہ
It was reported to us Yaila, he said that Abdul Malik told him who heard from Ata that obey Allah and obey the Prophet (peace be upon him) and (obey) those among you who possess authority to rule (olil Am’r).Ata said that by Olil Am’r are meant the person of Knowledge and Jurisprudence (Fiq’h)
Commenting on the under noted verse by Khazin:
فاسئلوا اھل الذکر ان کنتم لا تعلمون فاسئلوا المومنین العلمین من اھل القران
Then enquire from the men of learning if you do not know; by way of elaberation it meant that euquire from men of Faith (Eiman) who are the scholars (Ulama) of the Qur’an.
The Tafsir (interpretation) of this verse given in the Tafsir -e- Mansur is like this:
اخرج ابن مردویہ عن انس قال سمعت النبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم یقول ان الرجل یصلی و یصوم و یحج و یغزو وانہ لمنافق قالوا یارسول اللہ بما ذا دخل علیہ النفاق قال لطعنہ علی امامہ و امامہ من قال قال اللہ فی کتابہ فاسئلوا اھل الذکر ان کنتم لاتعلمون
It is reported by Ibne Marduyah on the authority of Hazrat Anas who said that he heard from the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) that some women offer prayers (namaz), keep fast, perform hajj and take part in Jihad, although they are the Munafiqs (hypocrites).It was asked of the Holy Prohet (peace be upon him) , how the ‘nifaq’ (hypocrisy) crept into them; he said because they taunted and blamed their Imam. When asked who the Imam is, he said: Allah says… then he recited this verse (Fas’alu Ahlaz Zikr…
In the tafsir of the Vrse واذکر ربک اذا نسیت remember your Lord (RABB) if you forget) (Surah Kah’f) it is said in Tafsir e Saavi:
ولا یجوز تقلید ما عدا المذاھب الاربعہ ولو وافق قول الصحابہ والحدیث الصحیح والایہ فالخارج عن المذاھب الاربعہ ضال مضل و ربما اداہ ذلک للکفر لان الاخذ بظواھر الکتاب والسنہ من اصول الکفر
(It is not permissible to do Taqleed of any other sect of religion except the Four Sects. even if what they say is according to the sayings of the Companions, Correct (Sahih) Hadis and the verse of the Qur’an Any person who is outside (outcaste) from the four sects and those like him are themselves the misguided ones and misguide others; It is Kufr to adopt extraneous meanings of the Qur’an and the Hadis
AHADIS : Muslim vol. (1) Page No 54 Chapter Deenin Nasihat’
عن تمیم الداری ان النبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم قال الدین النصیحہ قلنا لمن قال للہ ولکتابہ ولرسولہ ولائمہ المسلمین وعامتھم
(It is reported by Tamim Darmi that the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) said that Deen is rhe Well-being asked ‘whose well-being? the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) said, the well-being of Allah and His book and his Prophet, that of the Imam of the Musalmans and the Musalmans in general.
In the explanation of this tradition (hadis, it is said in the Shar’h Nuwi
وقدیتناول ذلک علی الائمہ الذین ھم علماء الدین وان من نصیحتھم قبول مارووہ و تقلیدھم فی الاحکام و احسان الظن بھم
This Hadis also includes those Imams who are the Ulama of the Deen and the their well being; to accept as true the Ahadis mentioned (reported) by them and follow as Taqleed the commands/laws issued by them, and to wish good of them (ulama).